Anderson, Sir James Caleb (1792–1861), baronet and steam-coach promoter, was born 21 July 1792 in Cork, eldest of two sons and one daughter of John Anderson (1747–1820), banker of Cork, and his second wife, Elizabeth (d. 1830), daughter of James Semple, merchant of Waterford. John Anderson (qv) was the founder of the town of Fermoy and introduced mail coach services from Dublin to Cork and other major towns. This involved considerable cost in repairing and realigning roads and establishing hostelries along the way. He declined a baronetcy for the achievement, and it was bestowed on his son James on 22 March 1813.
Anderson followed his father in the field of transport by promoting the use of steam-powered coaches on public roads. Around 1829 he was working with, and providing finance for, William James of Birmingham and London. Their efforts met with partial success, but financial problems thwarted full acceptance of their machines. During the period 1839–41 Anderson established (with, inter alios, Jasper Rogers) the Steam Carriage and Wagon Company to convey passengers across Ireland to a proposed transatlantic terminal in Galway. Carriages were built by Jasper Rogers at the Newcomenbridge works in Dublin and by Sharp Roberts in Manchester. At least one gave demonstrations in Dublin and travelled to Kilbeggan, some sixty miles (96 km) out on the road to Galway. Competition from railways halted the development and acceptance of road locomotives.
Anderson died of bronchitis 4 April 1861 at 11 Upper Copenhagen St., London. He married (1814) Caroline, fourth daughter of Robert Shaw, banker in Dublin and sister of Sir Robert Shaw (qv); they had two sons and three daughters. They lived in Buttevant Castle, Mallow, Co. Cork, until 1847 and in Fermoy thereafter. His two sons, both childless, predeceased him and the baronetcy became extinct.