Raymond, Anthony (1675–1726), clergyman and Irish-language scholar, was born in Ballyloughran, near Listowel, Co. Kerry, second son of Anthony Raymond, sheriff of Kerry, and his wife Ann (née Taylor). His family moved to Mitchelstown, Co. Cork, at some stage during his youth. Little is known of his early education except that he was educated by a Mr Jones in Cobh, Co. Cork. Afterwards he entered TCD as a pensioner (paying student) in June 1692, and was elected scholar the following year. He graduated BA degree (1695) and MA (1699). The same year he was elected junior fellow and became lecturer in physic (medicine). He was ordained in Cork in September 1699. In 1705 he was appointed vicar of Trim, Co. Meath. Two years later (1707) he was awarded an LLD degree, and in 1719 a DD. He was one of the scholarly élite of his time and was often referred to as ‘the learned Dr Raymond’. On the appointment of Charles Talbot (qv), duke of Shrewsbury, as lord lieutenant of Ireland (1713), Raymond was appointed as his chaplain, possibly due to the intervention of Jonathan Swift (qv), with whom he was closely connected for most of his life. When Shrewsbury fell out of favour the following year, Raymond also lost his post.
Raymond appears to have had a good command of the Irish language and probably first came into contact with it while living in Kerry and Cork. Most of his parishioners in Trim were Irish-speakers, and in order to be more effective as an anglican priest he felt it necessary to learn the language. His interest in Irish-language scholarship may have been sparked by the publication (1707) of Archaeologia Britannica by Edward Lhuyd (qv). Raymond later translated the Irish preface to Lhuyd's work, which was published in Bishop William Nicolson's The Irish Historical Library in August 1724. He collected Irish-language manuscripts both by purchasing them and by having scribes transcribe them for him. It is unclear when he came into contact with the coterie of Irish scholars who were working in Dublin at that time, among whom were Tadhg Ó Neachtain (qv), Aodh Mac Cruitín (qv), and Risteard Tuibear (qv). His contact with them belongs to the period 1718–26. He acted as patron to Ó Neachtain, who composed the praise poem ‘Éire oll i gcaochcheo atá’ in his honour and referred to Raymond as athbheothaí na Gaeilge (‘reviver of the Irish language’). He also acted as patron to Mac Cruitín, who transcribed passages from the Book of Ballymote for Raymond who had borrowed the original manuscript from the TCD library. He employed (1719–20) another Gaelic scholar, Dermot O'Connor (qv), to transcribe passages from other manuscripts for him. A bitter dispute arose between the two men, however, with the publication of O'Connor's History of Ireland (1723), a translation of Foras feasa ar Éirinn (1634), by Geoffrey Keating (qv). Raymond had already translated Keating's work and had intended to publish it. In the preface to his translation O'Connor claimed that Raymond had promised to assist him with the translation and had entered into a bond of a thousand pounds as security for the loan of a manuscript from Trinity College library to O'Connor. Raymond spent the period 1723–6 attempting to salvage his reputation, and attacked O'Connor and his translation at every opportunity in printed pamphlets, in news-sheet advertisements, and in notes and letters in his private papers.
His publications include the pamphlet An account of Dr Keating's history of Ireland (1723); A letter from Dr Raymond to my lord Inchiquin giving some account of the monarchs and ancient state of Ireland (1723) and A short preliminary discourse to the history of Ireland (1725). He had proposed to undertake a history entitled ‘A genealogical, historical and chronological account of the Irish nobility and gentry’ in 1725. Having gathered subscriptions for the project in Ireland, he travelled to London to continue the collection. He succeeded in gathering 168 subscriptions for the publication but died suddenly the following year while still in London. He had also proposed to write a history of Ireland based on Irish-language sources, most of which were only available in manuscripts; had planned to undertake a comparative study of the Germanic and Celtic languages; and was preparing an Irish–English dictionary for the press.
He married (c.1708) Elizabeth; her surname is unknown, but as one of their children was called Gybson, Harrison suggests this may have been her maiden name. They had at least two other children. His papers are held in the RIA and include a translation of the poem ‘Triallam timcheall na Fodla’ (I travel around Ireland).